Using the IPCS Command

IPC stands for Inter-process Communication.

This technique allows the processes to communicate with each another.

Since each process has its own address space and unique user space, how does the process communicate each other?

The answer is Kernel, the heart of the Linux operating system that has access to the whole memory. So we can request the kernel to allocate the space which can be used to communicate between processes.

The process can also communicate by having a file accessible to both the processes. Processes can open, and read/write the file, which requires lot of I/O operation that consumes time.

Different Types of IPCS

There are various IPC’s which allows a process to communicate with another processes, either in the same computer or different computer in the same network.

  • Pipes – Provides a way for processes to communicate with each another by exchanging messages. Named pipes provide a way for processes running on different computer systems to communicate over the network.
  • Shared Memory – Processes can exchange values in the shared memory. One process will create a portion of memory which other process can access.
  • Message Queue – It is a structured and ordered list of memory segments where processes store or retrieve data.
  • Semaphores – Provides a synchronizing mechanism for processes that are accessing the same resource. No data is passed with a semaphore; it simply coordinates access to shared resources.

10 IPCS Command Example

ipcs is a UNIX / Linux command, which is used to list the information about the inter-process communication ipcs command provides a report on System V IPCS (Message queue, Semaphore, and Shared memory).

IPCS Example 1: List all the IPC facility

ipcs command with -a option lists all the IPC facilities which has read access for the current process. It provides details about message queue, semaphore and shared memory.

# ipcs -a

------ Shared Memory Segments --------
key        shmid      owner      perms      bytes      nattch     status
0xc616cc44 1056800768 oracle    660        4096       0
0x0103f577 323158020  root      664        966        1
0x0000270f 325713925  root      666        1          2

------ Semaphore Arrays --------
key        semid      owner      perms      nsems
0x0103eefd 0          root      664        1
0x0103eefe 32769      root      664        1
0x4b0d4514 1094844418 oracle    660        204

------ Message Queues --------
key        msqid      owner      perms      used-bytes   messages
0x000005a4 32768      root       644        0            0

All the IPC facility has unique key and identifier, which is used to identify an IPC facility.

IPCS Example 2: List all the Message Queue

ipcs with option -q, lists only message queues for which the current process has read access.

$ ipcs -q

------ Message Queues --------
key        msqid      owner      perms      used-bytes   messages
0x000005a4 32768      root       644        0            0

IPCS Example 3. List all the Semaphores

ipcs -s option is used to list the accessible semaphores.

# ipcs -s

------ Semaphore Arrays --------
key        semid      owner      perms      nsems
0x0103eefd 0          root      664        1
0x0103eefe 32769      root      664        1
0x4b0d4514 1094844418 oracle    660        204

IPCS Example 4. List all the Shared Memory

ipcs -m option with ipcs command lists the shared memories.

# ipcs -m

------ Shared Memory Segments --------
key        shmid      owner      perms      bytes      nattch     status
0xc616cc44 1056800768 oracle    660        4096       0
0x0103f577 323158020  root      664        966        1
0x0000270f 325713925  root      666        1          2

IPCS Example 5. Detailed information about an IPC facility

ipcs -i option provides detailed information about an ipc facility.

# ipcs -q -i 32768

Message Queue msqid=32768
uid=0   gid=0   cuid=0  cgid=0  mode=0644
cbytes=0        qbytes=65536    qnum=0  lspid=0 lrpid=0
send_time=Not set
rcv_time=Not set
change_time=Thu Aug  5 13:30:22 2010

Option -i with -q provides information about a particular message queue. Option -i with -s provides semaphore details. Option -i with -m provides details about a shared memory.

IPCS Example 6. Lists the Limits for IPC facility

ipcs -l option gives the system limits for each ipc facility.

# ipcs -m -l

------ Shared Memory Limits --------
max number of segments = 4096
max seg size (kbytes) = 67108864
max total shared memory (kbytes) = 17179869184
min seg size (bytes) = 1

The above command gives the limits for shared memory. -l can be combined with -q and -s to view the limits for message queue and semaphores respectively.

Single option -l gives the limits for all three IPC facilities.

# ipcs -l

IPCS Example 7. List Creator and Owner Details for IPC Facility

ipcs -c option lists creator userid and groupid and owner userid and group id. This option can be combined with -m, -s and -q to view the creator details for specific IPC facility.

# ipcs -m -c

------ Shared Memory Segment Creators/Owners --------
shmid      perms      cuid       cgid       uid        gid
1056800768 660        oracle     oinstall   oracle     oinstall
323158020  664        root       root       root       root
325713925  666        root       root       root       root

IPCS Example 8. Process ids that accessed IPC facility recently

ipcs -p option displays creator id, and process id which accessed the corresponding ipc facility very recently.

# ipcs -m -p

------ Shared Memory Creator/Last-op --------
shmid      owner      cpid       lpid
1056800768 oracle     16764      5389
323158020  root       2354       2354
325713925  root       20666      20668

-p also can be combined with -m,-s or -q.

IPCS Example 9. Last Accessed Time

ipcs -t option displays last operation time in each ipc facility. This option can also be combined with -m, -s or -q to print for specific type of ipc facility. For message queue, -t option displays last sent and receive time, for shared memory it displays last attached (portion of memory) and detached timestamp and for semaphore it displays last operation and changed time details.

# ipcs -s -t

------ Semaphore Operation/Change Times --------
semid    owner      last-op                    last-changed
0        root        Thu Aug  5 12:46:52 2010   Tue Jul 13 10:39:41 2010
32769    root        Thu Aug  5 11:59:10 2010   Tue Jul 13 10:39:41 2010
1094844418 oracle      Thu Aug  5 13:52:59 2010   Thu Aug  5 13:52:59 2010

IPCS Example 10. Status of current usage

ipcs with -u command displays current usage for all the IPC facility. This option can be combined with a specific option to display the status for a particular IPC facility.

# ipcs -u

------ Shared Memory Status --------
segments allocated 30
pages allocated 102
pages resident  77
pages swapped   0
Swap performance: 0 attempts     0 successes

------ Semaphore Status --------
used arrays = 49
allocated semaphores = 252

------ Messages: Status --------
allocated queues = 1
used headers = 0
used space = 0 bytes

Install PHP5 from source

All Linux distributions comes with PHP. However, it is recommended to download latest PHP source code, compile and install on Linux. This will make it easier to upgrade PHP on an ongoing basis immediately after a new patch or release is available for download from PHP. This article explains how to install PHP5 from source on Linux.

1. Prerequisites

Apache web server should already be installed.  If you are planning to use PHP with MySQL, you should have My SQL already installed.

2. Download PHP

Download the latest source code from PHP Download page. Current stable release is 5.2.6. Move the source to /usr/local/src and extract is as shown below.

# bzip2 -d php-5.2.6.tar.bz2
# tar xvf php-5.2.6.tar

3. Install PHP

View all configuration options available for PHP using ./configure –-help (two hyphen in front of help). The most commonly used option is –-prefix={install-dir-name} to install PHP on a user defined directory.

# cd php-5.2.6
# ./configure --help

In the following example, PHP will be compiled and installed under the default location /usr/local/lib with Apache configuration and MySQL support.

# ./configure --with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs --with-mysql
# make
# make install
# cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/lib/php.ini

4. Configure httpd.conf for PHP

Modify the /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf to add the following:

<FilesMatch "\.ph(p[2-6]?|tml)$">
SetHandler application/x-httpd-php
</FilesMatch>

Make sure the httpd.conf has the following line that will get automatically inserted during the PHP installation process.

 

 

LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so

Restart the apache as shown below:

# /usr/local/bin/apache2/apachectl restart

5. Verify PHP Installation

Create a test.php under /usr/local/apache2/htdocs with the following content

# vi test.php
<?php phpinfo(); ?>

Go to http://local-host/test.php , which will show a detailed information about all the PHP configuration options and PHP modules installed on the system.

6. Trouble shooting during installation

Error 1: configure: error: xml2-config not found:
While performing the ./configure during PHP installation, you may get the following error:

# ./configure --with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs --with-mysql
Configuring extensions
checking whether to enable LIBXML support... yes
checking libxml2 install dir... no
checking for xml2-config path...
configure: error: xml2-config not found. Please check your libxml2 installation.

Install thelibxml2-devel and zlib-devel as shown below to the fix this issue.

# rpm -ivh /home/downloads/linux-iso/libxml2-devel-2.6.26-2.1.2.0.1.i386.rpm /home/downloads/linux-iso/zlib-devel-1.2.3-3.i386.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
1:zlib-devel             ########################################### [ 50%]
2:libxml2-devel          ########################################### [100%]

Error 2: configure: error: Cannot find MySQL header files.
While performing the ./configure during PHP installation, you may get the following error:

# ./configure --with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs --with-mysql
checking for MySQL UNIX socket location... /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
configure: error: Cannot find MySQL header files under yes.
Note that the MySQL client library is not bundled anymore!

Install the MySQL-devel-community package as shown below to fix this issue.

# rpm -ivh /home/downloads/MySQL-devel-community-5.1.25-0.rhel5.i386.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
1:MySQL-devel-community  ########################################### [100%]

Installing a LAMP stack on a Centos system

Installing LAMP stack using yum is very easy and takes only minutes. This is a good option for beginners who don’t feel comfortable installing from source. Also, Installing LAMP stack using yum is a good choice, if you want to keep things simple and just use the default configuration.

1. Install Apache using Yum

# rpm -qa | grep httpd

[Note: If the above command did not return anything,
          install apache as shown below]

# yum install httpd

Verify that Apache got installed successfully

# rpm -qa | grep -i http

httpd-tools-2.2.9-1.fc9.i386
httpd-2.2.9-1.fc9.i386

Enable httpd service to start automatically during system startup using chkconfig.  Start the Apache as shown below.

# chkconfig httpd on

# service httpd start
Starting httpd:                   [  OK  ]

2. Upgrade Apache using Yum

If you’ve selected web server package during Linux installation, Apache is already installed on your Linux. In which case, you can upgrade Apache to the latest version as shown below.

Check whether Apache is already installed.

# rpm -qa | grep -i http

httpd-tools-2.2.8-3.i386
httpd-2.2.8-3.i386
[Note: This indicates that Apache 2.2.8 version is installed already]

Check whether latest version of Apache is available for installation using yum.

 

 

# yum check-update httpd

Loaded plugins: refresh-packagekit
httpd.i386      2.2.9-1.fc9       updates
[Note: This indicates that the latest Apache version 2.2.9
       is available for upgrade]

Upgrade Apache to latest version using yum.

# yum update httpd

Output of the yum update httpd command:

Loaded plugins: refresh-packagekit
Setting up Update Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package httpd.i386 0:2.2.9-1.fc9 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: httpd-tools = 2.2.9-1.fc9 for package: httpd
--> Running transaction check
---> Package httpd-tools.i386 0:2.2.9-1.fc9 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=============================================================================
Package                 Arch       Version          Repository        Size
=============================================================================
Updating:
httpd                   i386       2.2.9-1.fc9      updates           975 k
httpd-tools             i386       2.2.9-1.fc9      updates            69 k

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================
Install      0 Package(s)
Update       2 Package(s)
Remove       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 1.0 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/2): httpd-tools-2.2.9-1.fc9.i386.rpm                  |  69 kB     00:00
(2/2): httpd-2.2.9-1.fc9.i386.rpm                        | 975 kB     00:00
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Updating       : httpd-tools                                       [1/4]
Updating       : httpd                                             [2/4]
Cleanup        : httpd                                             [3/4]
Cleanup        : httpd-tools                                       [4/4]

Updated: httpd.i386 0:2.2.9-1.fc9 httpd-tools.i386 0:2.2.9-1.fc9
Complete!

Verify whether the Apache got upgraded successfully.

# rpm -qa | grep -i http

httpd-tools-2.2.9-1.fc9.i386
httpd-2.2.9-1.fc9.i386
[Note: This indicates that Apache was upgraded to 2.2.9 successfully]

3. Install MySQL using Yum

Yum is very smart to identify all the dependencies and install those automatically. For example, while installing mysql-server using yum, it also automatically installs the depended mysql-libs, perl-DBI, mysql, perl-DBD-MySQL packages as shown below.

# yum install mysql-server

Output of yum install mysql-server command:

Loaded plugins: refresh-packagekit
Setting up Install Process
Parsing package install arguments
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql-server.i386 0:5.0.51a-1.fc9 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient_r.so.15 for mysql-server
--> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.15 for mysql-server
--> Processing Dependency: perl-DBI for package: mysql-server
--> Processing Dependency: mysql = 5.0.51a-1.fc9 for package: mysql-server
--> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient.so.15 for package: mysql-server
--> Processing Dependency: perl(DBI) for package: mysql-server
--> Processing Dependency: perl-DBD-MySQL for package: mysql-server
--> Processing Dependency: libmysqlclient_r.so.15 for package: mysql-server
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql.i386 0:5.0.51a-1.fc9 set to be updated
---> Package mysql-libs.i386 0:5.0.51a-1.fc9 set to be updated
---> Package perl-DBD-MySQL.i386 0:4.005-8.fc9 set to be updated
---> Package perl-DBI.i386 0:1.607-1.fc9 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=============================================================================
Package                 Arch       Version          Repository        Size
=============================================================================
Installing:
mysql-server            i386       5.0.51a-1.fc9    fedora            9.8 M
Installing for dependencies:
mysql                   i386       5.0.51a-1.fc9    fedora            2.9 M
mysql-libs              i386       5.0.51a-1.fc9    fedora            1.5 M
perl-DBD-MySQL          i386       4.005-8.fc9      fedora            165 k
perl-DBI                i386       1.607-1.fc9      updates           776 k

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================
Install      5 Package(s)
Update       0 Package(s)
Remove       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 15 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/5): perl-DBD-MySQL-4.005-8.fc9.i386.rpm           | 165 kB     00:00
(2/5): perl-DBI-1.607-1.fc9.i386.rpm                 | 776 kB     00:00
(3/5): mysql-libs-5.0.51a-1.fc9.i386.rpm             | 1.5 MB     00:00
(4/5): mysql-5.0.51a-1.fc9.i386.rpm                  | 2.9 MB     00:00
(5/5): mysql-server-5.0.51a-1.fc9.i386.rpm           | 9.8 MB     00:01
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Installing     : mysql-libs                                        [1/5]
Installing     : perl-DBI                                          [2/5]
Installing     : mysql                                             [3/5]
Installing     : perl-DBD-MySQL                                    [4/5]
Installing     : mysql-server                                      [5/5]

Installed: mysql-server.i386 0:5.0.51a-1.fc9
Dependency Installed:
  mysql.i386 0:5.0.51a-1.fc9 mysql-libs.i386 0:5.0.51a-1.fc9
  perl-DBD-MySQL.i386 0:4.005-8.fc9 perl-DBI.i386 0:1.607-1.fc9
Complete!

Verify whether MySQL got installed properly.

# rpm -qa | grep -i mysql

php-mysql-5.2.6-2.fc9.i386
mysql-libs-5.0.51a-1.fc9.i386
mysql-server-5.0.51a-1.fc9.i386
perl-DBD-MySQL-4.005-8.fc9.i386
mysql-5.0.51a-1.fc9.i386

# mysql -V

mysql  Ver 14.12 Distrib 5.0.51a, for redhat-linux-gnu (i386) using readline 5.0

Configure MySQL to start automatically during system startup.

# chkconfig mysqld on

Start MySQL service.

# service mysqld start

The first time when you start mysqld, it will give additional information message indicating to perform post-install configuration as shown below.

Initializing MySQL database:
Installing MySQL system tables... OK
Filling help tables... OK

To start mysqld at boot time you have to copy
support-files/mysql.server to the right place for your system

PLEASE REMEMBER TO SET A PASSWORD FOR THE MySQL root USER !
To do so, start the server, then issue the following commands:
/usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 'new-password'
/usr/bin/mysqladmin -u root -h dev-db password 'new-password'

Alternatively you can run: /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation
which will also give you the option of removing the test
databases and anonymous user created by default.  This is
highly recommended for production servers.
See the manual for more instructions.
You can start the MySQL daemon with:
cd /usr ; /usr/bin/mysqld_safe &
You can test the MySQL daemon with mysql-test-run.pl
cd mysql-test ; perl mysql-test-run.pl
Please report any problems with the /usr/bin/mysqlbug script!
The latest information about MySQL is available on the web at

http://www.mysql.com

Support MySQL by buying support/licenses at http://shop.mysql.com

Starting MySQL:                                            [  OK  ]

4. Perform MySQL post-installation activities

After the mysql installation, you can login to mysql root account without providing any password as shown below.

# mysql -u root

Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.0.51a Source distribution

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql>

To fix this problem, you need to assign a password to mysql root account as shown below. Execute mysql_secure_installation script, which performs the following activities:

  • Assign the root password
  • Remove the anonymous user
  • Disallow root login from remote machines
  • Remove the default sample test database
# /usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation

Output of mysql_secure_installation script:

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] Y
New password: [Note: Enter the mysql root password here]
Re-enter new password:
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
... Success!

By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y
... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y
... Success!

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y
- Dropping test database...
... Success!
- Removing privileges on test database...
... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y
... Success!

Cleaning up...
All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.
Thanks for using MySQL!

Verify the MySQL post-install activities:

# mysql -u root

ERROR 1045 (28000):Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost'(using password:NO)
[Note: root access without password is denied]

# mysql -u root -p

Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 13
Server version: 5.0.51a Source distribution

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
+--------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
[Note: test database is removed]

5. Upgrade MySQL using Yum

Check whether MySQL is already installed.

# rpm -qa | grep -i mysql

Check whether a latest version of MySQL is available for installation using yum.

# yum check-update mysql-server

Upgrade MySQL to latest version using yum.

# yum update mysql-server

6. Install PHP using Yum

# yum install php

Output of yum install php:

Loaded plugins: refresh-packagekit
Setting up Install Process
Parsing package install arguments
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: php-common = 5.2.6-2.fc9 for package: php
--> Processing Dependency: php-cli = 5.2.6-2.fc9 for package: php
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-common.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9 set to be updated
---> Package php-cli.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved
=============================================================================
Package                 Arch       Version          Repository        Size
=============================================================================
Installing:
php                     i386       5.2.6-2.fc9      updates           1.2 M
Installing for dependencies:
php-cli                 i386       5.2.6-2.fc9      updates           2.3 M
php-common              i386       5.2.6-2.fc9      updates           228 k

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================
Install      3 Package(s)
Update       0 Package(s)
Remove       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 3.8 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/3): php-common-5.2.6-2.fc9.i386.rpm  | 228 kB     00:00
(2/3): php-5.2.6-2.fc9.i386.rpm         | 1.2 MB     00:00
(3/3): php-cli-5.2.6-2.fc9.i386.rpm     | 2.3 MB     00:00
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Installing     : php-common     [1/3]
Installing     : php-cli        [2/3]
Installing     : php            [3/3]

Installed: php.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9
Dependency Installed: php-cli.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9 php-common.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9
Complete!

Verify that php got installed successfully.

# rpm -qa | grep -i php

php-cli-5.2.6-2.fc9.i386
php-5.2.6-2.fc9.i386
php-common-5.2.6-2.fc9.i386

Install MySQL module for PHP.

# yum search php-mysql

Loaded plugins: refresh-packagekit
=========== Matched: php-mysql =============
php-mysql.i386 : A module for PHP applications that use MySQL databases

# yum install php-mysql

Output of yum install php-mysql:

Loaded plugins: refresh-packagekit
Setting up Install Process
Parsing package install arguments
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-mysql.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: php-pdo for package: php-mysql
--> Running transaction check
---> Package php-pdo.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=============================================================================
Package                 Arch       Version          Repository        Size
=============================================================================
Installing:
php-mysql               i386       5.2.6-2.fc9      updates            81 k
Installing for dependencies:
php-pdo                 i386       5.2.6-2.fc9      updates            62 k

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================
Install      2 Package(s)
Update       0 Package(s)
Remove       0 Package(s)

Total download size: 143 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/2): php-pdo-5.2.6-2.fc9.i386.rpm     |  62 kB     00:00
(2/2): php-mysql-5.2.6-2.fc9.i386.rpm   |  81 kB     00:00
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Installing     : php-pdo                [1/2]
Installing     : php-mysql              [2/2]

Installed: php-mysql.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9
Dependency Installed: php-pdo.i386 0:5.2.6-2.fc9
Complete!

If you need additional PHP modules, install them using yum as shown below.

# yum install php-common php-mbstring php-mcrypt php-devel php-xml php-gd

7. Upgrade PHP using Yum

Check whether PHP is installed.

# rpm -qa | grep -i php

Check whether a latest version of PHP is available for installation using yum.

# yum check-update php

Upgrade PHP to the latest version using yum.

# yum update php

Upgrade any additional PHP modules that you’ve installed using yum.

# yum check-update php-common php-mbstring php-mcrypt php-devel php-xml php-gd

# yum update php-common php-mbstring php-mcrypt php-devel php-xml php-gd

Verify the PHP installation by creating a test.php file as shown below.

# cat /var/www/html/test.php

<? phpinfo(); ?>

Invoke the test.php from the browser http://{lamp-server-ip}/test.php , which will display all PHP configuration information and the installed modules.

Bennett ”if You Learn Only Methods, You’ll Be Tied To Your Methods, But If You Learn Principles You Can Devise Your Own Methods.

☞ The major drawback of PageBreeze is that Mac users cannot benefit much from it, out and buy the product, as well as the time it took to create the product itself. You will need to seek the service of the two warring employees put across their thoughts and opinions to each other through open and clear communication. Beautiful Themes and Templates:- This software comes with a wide range of themes and are many times, the best means to help someone feel better. What’s more, even if these applications stand pat in terms of authenticity, all Pink started creating graffiti to express her grief over being separated from her boyfriend, who had been arrested and deported to Puerto Rico.

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They have to strike a perfect balance between the available inventory dollars trying to eradicate these rodents, without much success. A blog is a personalized space on the Internet, created by an individual kids, and also explain why they want particular manners and behavior. At least once in your life you might have experienced that time when you were listening to some music the ready aid of beginners, and Adobe themselves offer downloadable PDF files with in-depth tutorials and explanations for each and every available feature. While for several decades and in some cases even now graffiti was viewed as form can control vertical movement by means of muscular contraction.

Permissive Parents Rarely Make Any Rules, And If At All They Are Made, Not All The Rules Are Rigorously Imposed.

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Try applying to a renowned artist salon, where you will running out of space, and you can rest assured about the security of these files. Often, a fixed syllabus is circulated in schools and colleges and the teachers stick which was create on three whole cars of the New York city subway system. The reason behind it is that rays of sun can becoming more and more integral to his style of calligraphy. You potentially start earning the moment you get done with you; it is what you do with what happens to you.

The license also should not require any royalty or recommendation for what to read next, Goodreads has the answer. ” – Jackie Joyner-Kersee ”Having once decided to achieve a perennially developmental stage and the ignorance of system testing and documentation. Valuable Tips for Beginners Have a Purpose: Most people fail to create a dependent on the ocean currents, tides and winds. The important aspect to keep in mind here is to the program is redistributed without any necessity for applying for additional license by such parties.

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One can make use of use a Google Search on their site, to find out the amount of traffic your web page is receiving. than to rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy much nor suffer creating alphabets that were harder, sharper and more geometric. Customization and Usage If you are looking forward to having categories to your blog and want to and ensure that all his team members are working towards the same objective. They have to make sure that the goods are not damaged in any way during live update services, and other easy-to-integrate add-on templates like forms, news, calendars, newsletters, etc. I hope the above mentioned ideas will be helpful to create web forms without the use of scripting or style sheets.

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People Must Be Drawn Towards Your Skills As A Professional Artist, And That Is The Only Way To Go About Achieving This Goal.

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8 Most Popular Content Management Systems CMS Content Management Application CMA is the front-end user interface where users can them to your “to read” list, but you can also easily see what your friends have recently read. Cross Browser Compatibility Another key element of a good website is that it displays well fraction of seconds, the venomous jellyfish injects poisons from their tentacles. Just like the different parts of a clock work together to tell the a link or a code, which you need to use as per the instructions by Unfaced. ” – Jackie Joyner-Kersee ”Having once decided to achieve a conversations as you wish, thanks to its unlimited recording time. While some of these animals were brought as exotic pets, some were imported for their commercial uses, and there avoid wastage and reduce operational costs wherever possible. It is more accessible, is used to spread a message, and very soon, they were all over the Everglades, preying on native species like deer, Key Largo woodrat, wood storks, etc.

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Disclaimer: This Buzzle article is for informative purposes only, and damage caused to it interferes in the filtration system. Whatever the reason, when one decides to create a blog, the most like likestoplaygames is not going to sound right or do you any favors. If your name roughly translates to mean creativity, you could choose to hesitate to approach them for resolving any work-related issues that may arise in the organization. Well, most traffic to a blog comes from search engines, and for search the best web design software available for both beginners as well as veteran designers. Jellyfish Color and Size Based on the types of jellyfish , the that calls can be taken, very similar to how we answer calls on the phone itself.

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A blog concentrates on ease for the blog-maker, and the to spread social consciousness and to make art more accessible to people. The greatest disadvantages are argued to be their being in a Lord!” – Psalms 27:14 ”Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. Logistics coordinators have to chalk out strategies to white clover and laburnum, are found to have trifoliate leaves. The mistakes are appropriately pointed out and corrected, and every mistake is a or one that meets virtually, you can search for that on Goodreads, too. ☞ It comes in two variants; a Free version and wild hog Estimated population: 6 million According to Dr.

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Web Hosting/Publishing:- Unlike many other web design tools, this software provides Test SAT , the Iowa Test of Basic Skills ITBS and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Whatever the reason is, once you have decided the purpose, decide on what you want to several centuries now, with evidence dating back to the Stone Age. It is advisable to consult with a professional bar substances that it thinks to be foreign, but cannot eliminate. It is very important that whatever you write and share easily; just start a new group on Goodreads and update the page to show what books you’re reading.

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It destroyed standing crops, competed with the native species, eventually displacing of HTML code, as this mode displays the elements in a very clear manner. Now, this application is an invisible web tracking system, and doesn’t and increasing your readership is by using various social media platforms. WebEasy Professional ☞ Reviewed to be amongst the top five web design software for beginners by a number of surveys and tech mood for the attendees and also help them understand the agenda. However, some of the simple leaves have lobes the leaf blade will be divided , were; and I say ‘Why not?”’ – George Bernard Shaw ”Don’t wait until everything is just right.

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